The speedy Cheetah is very distinct from other cats and has many unique adaptations to enable it to chase prey at high speeds, being well known as the fastest land mammal. One of these adaptations is non-retractable claws that help it grip the ground when running, whereas most other cats have retractable claws.
Cheetahs have declined drastically in the past century and now only occur in 10% of their historic range in Africa and a small population of less than a 100 in Iran.
Key Facts about Cheetahs
~ Fastest land mammal - 80km+/hr ~
~ Non-retractable claws ~
~ Active during the day ~
In scientific classification (taxonomy) the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) belongs to the genus Acinonyx within the small cat subfamily Felinae of the Felidae cat family.
Kingdom: Animalia (animals)
Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)
Class: Mammalia (mammals)
Order: Carnivora (carnivores)
Suborder: Feliformia (cat-like)
Family: Felidae (cats)
Subfamily: Felinae (small cats)
Species: Acinonyx jubatus (Cheetah)
Note: The scientific name for the Cheetah species, Acinonyx jubatus, is also known as the cheetah binomial name, cheetah species name, cheetah latin name, cheetah biological name and cheetah zoological name. Some call it the cheetah botanical name however that term is applicable to the plant kingdom (botany) and not the animal kingdom (zoology).
This Cheetah classification chart shows where the Cheetah fits into the Felidae family within its own Acinonyx genus.
Subspecies (Lower Classifications)
Five subspecies (or lower classifications) of Cheetah have been recognized in the past:
- Acinonyx jubatus venaticus - North Africa to central India / Asiatic Cheetah (Critically Endangered)
- Acinonyx jubatus hecki - Northwest Africa / Saharan Cheetah (Critically Endangered)
- Acinonyx jubatus fearsoni - East Africa (or A.j. raineyi)
- Acinonyx jubatus jubatus - Southern Africa
- Acinonyx jubatus soemmerringi - North East Africa
However based on genetic studies the last taxonomic revision of Felidae in 2017 proposed only four Cheetah subspecies:
- Acinonyx jubatus jubatus - Southern and Eastern Africa
- Acinonyx jubatus soemmerringi - North East Africa
- Acinonyx jubatus venaticus - South West Asia and India
- Acinonyx jubatus hecki - West and North Africa
Here are some papers published on Cheetahs. Click on the title bar to view the abstract and the link to the article.
Assessing trends in abundance and density of species of conservation concern is vital to inform conservation and management strategies. The remaining population of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) largely exists outside of protected areas, where they are often in conflict with humans. Despite this, the population status and dynamics of cheetah outside of protected areas have received relatively limited attention across its range.
We analyzed remote camera trapping data of nine surveys conducted from 2005 to 2014 in the Waterberg Conservancy, north-central Namibia, which included detections of 74 individuals (52 adult males, 7 adult females and 15 dependents). Using spatial capture-recapture methods, we assessed annual and seasonal trends in cheetah density. We found evidence of a stable trend in cheetah density over the study period, with an average density of 1.94/100 km2 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.84).
This apparent stability of cheetah density is likely the result of stable and abundant prey availability, a high tolerance to carnivores by farmers and low turnover rates in home range tenure. This study highlights the importance of promoting long-term surveys that capture a broad range of environmental variation that may influence species density and the importance of nonprotected areas for cheetah conservation.
Fabiano, E.C.; Sutherland, C.; Fuller, A.K.; Nghikembua, M.; Eizirik, E.; Marker, L.
Trends in cheetah Acinonyx jubatus density in north-central Namibia
2020 Population Ecology (62): 233-243
Across the globe, wildlife populations and their behaviours are negatively impacted by people. Protected areas are believed to be an antidote to increasing human pressures but even they are not immune to the impact of anthropogenic activities. Areas that have been set aside for the protection of wildlife therefore warrant more attention when investigating the impact of anthropogenic pressures on wildlife. We use cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus as a case study to explore how a large carnivore responds to anthropogenic pressures inside wildlife areas.
Using GPS-collar data we investigate cheetah space use, both when moving and stationary, and movement parameters (speed and turn angles) in relation to human disturbance, distance to human settlement, livestock abundance and livestock site use inside wildlife areas.
Space use was negatively influenced by human disturbance, resulting in habitat loss and fragmentation and potentially reducing landscape permeability between neighbouring wildlife areas. Cheetahs were also less likely to stop in areas where livestock numbers were high, but more likely to stop in areas that were frequently used by livestock. The latter could reflect that cheetahs are attracted to livestock however, cheetahs in the study area rarely predated on livestock. It is therefore more likely that areas that are frequently used by livestock attract wild herbivores, which in turn could influence cheetah space use.
We did not find any effects of people and livestock on cheetahs' speed and turn angles which might be related to the resolution of the data.
We found that cheetahs are sensitive to human pressures and we believe that they could be an indicator species for other large carnivores facing similar challenges. We suggest that further research is needed to determine the levels of anthropogenic pressures needed to maintain ecological integrity, especially inside wildlife areas.
Broekhuis, F.; Madsen, E.K.; Klaassen, B.
Predators and pastoralists: how anthropogenic pressures inside wildlife areas influence carnivore space use and movement behaviour
2019 Animal Conservation (22): 404-416
Considerable effort has been put into conservation of the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus in Iran during the past few decades, and a thorough review of the species' status, demography, range and conservation is provided here.
We collated a large dataset of all verified occurrence data, photographic records and mortality cases since 1980 throughout the species' range in Iran. Currently, the cheetah is distributed throughout the arid landscapes of the eastern half of Iran, but the limits of its current and past range as well as population trends are uncertain. Surveys of nearly 40 different areas resulted in 18 localities with confirmed presence of cheetahs in recent years. Camera trapping has been an effective tool to provide evidence of presence and status of cheetahs, revealing the species' extremely low density and long inter-reserve movements. Together with photographic records, a total of 82 different cheetahs were detected during the 2000s in Iran.
Protection status in most areas has been elevated by the Iran government. Asiatic cheetahs are highly vulnerable to extinction, mainly due to causalities mediated by herder persecution, poaching and road collisions as well as prey and habitat loss. Some efforts have been made to address these threats, but range expansion in recent years is a result of greater survey effort, rather than population recovery. We suggest that, despite conservation investment of the last 15 years, the species remains critically endangered on the verge of extinction.
Farhadinia, M.S.; Hunter, L.T.B.; Jourabchian, A.; Hosseini-Zavarei, F.; Akbari, H.; Ziaie, H.; Schaller, G.B.; Jowkar, H.
The critically endangered Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus in Iran: a review of recent distribution, and conservation status
2017 Biodiversity Conservation (26): 1027-1046
View more articles on Acinonyx jubatus in the IUCN Cat Specialist Group database (scroll down once the library page is loaded to see the list).
The global conservation status for Cheetahs is Vulnerable (VU) and Endangered (EN) for the Mediterranean region. Two of the four subspecies are further listed as Critically Endangered (CR) - the Asiatic Cheetah and the Saharan Cheetah.
The following organizations are all fighting to protect our remaining Cheetahs, in the face of continuing habitat loss and fragmentation, persecution and illegal trade:
Please support these organizations with their important work if you can. No matter the size of your contribution, every bit helps!
Facts and Information
The following websites have well researched and authoritative information on Cheetahs:
- Cheetah Status and Distribution Map - IUCN Red List
- Cheetah Detailed Information - IUCN Cat Specialist Group
- Cheetah Academic Literature pdf - IUCN Cat Specialist Group
Big Cat Documentary:
Preview The Secret Lives of Big Cats filmed using high tech starlight and thermal imaging night cameras to capture previously unrecorded behavior. The series includes seven episodes on the secret lives of Lions, Tigers, Jaguars, Leopards, Snow Leopards, Pumas and Cheetahs. Produced by CuriosityStream.