Recently the Wildcat has been categorized into two species (Kitchener et al. 2017) - the forest wildcats of Europe (Felis silvestris), known as the European Wildcat, and the bush and steppe wildcats of Africa and Asia (Felis lybica), known as the African Wildcat and Asian Wildcat. As the Wildcat species/subspecies are genetically very similar to domestic cats, they can easily interbreed and unfortunately hybridization is becoming a serious threat to purebred Wildcat populations.
(To avoid confusion with the general term 'wild cat' we use the spelling 'wildcat' to refer to this particular species.)
European Wildcat (Felis silvestris) Unique Facts
~ primarily forest habitat ~
~ hybridization with domestic cats ~
~ only wild cat species in the United Kingdom ~
European Wildcat (Felis silvestris) Classification
The taxonomy or scientific classification of the European Wildcat species (Felis silvestris) is as follows:
Kingdom: Animalia (animals)
Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)
Class: Mammalia (mammals)
Order: Carnivora (carnivores)
Suborder: Feliformia (cat-like)
Family: Felidae (cats)
Subfamily: Felinae (small cats)
Species: Felis silvestris (European Wildcat)
European Wildcat (Felis silvestris) Subspecies (lower classifications)
The global conservation status for the Wildcat is Least Concern (LC) due to the wide range and estimated numbers. This includes all the Wildcats - African, Asiatic and European.
Many subspecies have been recognized in the past, however the latest taxonomic revision proposes two subspecies of European Wildcats:
1. Felis silvestris silvestris - Europe, including Scotland, Sicily and Crete
2. Felis silvestris caucasica - Caucasus, Turkey
- The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. <www.iucnredlist.org> Felis silvestris. 23 May 2017. (Note the IUCN Red List currently shows the prior classification of all Wildcats under Felis silvestris).
- Kitchener et al. 2017. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN / SSC Cat Specialist Group.
European Wildcat (Felis silvestris) Conservation and Research
The following organizations are involved with European Wildcat conservation and research:
Scotland, UK - Save the Scottish Wildcat
Switzerland - European Wildcat survey
Some academic literature on the European Wildcat since 2010 by year:
- Yamaguchi N., Kitchener A., Driscoll C. & Nussberger B. 2015.
Felis silvestris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. e.T60354712A50652361. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T60354712A50652361.en. Downloaded on 29 December 2016.
- Nussberger B., Wandeler P., Weber D. & Keller L. F. 2014.
Monitoring introgression in European wildcats in the Swiss Jura. Conservation Genetics 15, 1219-1230. 62. Nussberger B., Wandeler P., Weber D. & Keller L. F. 2013. Development of SNP markers identifying European wildcats, domestic cats, and their admixed progeny. Molecular Ecology Resources 13, 447-460.
- Anile S., Ragni B., Randi E., Mattucci F. & Rovero F. 2014.
Wildcat population density on the Etna volcano, Italy: a comparison of density estimation methods. Journal of Zoology 283, 252-261
- Anile S., Amico C. & Ragni B. 2012.
Population density estimation of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Sicily using camera trapping. Wild. Biol. Pract. 8(1), 1-12
- Randi E., Pierpaoli M., Beaumont M., Ragni B. & Sforzi A. 2011.
Genetic identification of wild and domestic cats (Felis silvestris) and their hybrids using Bayesian clustering methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18, 1679-1693.
- Driscoll C., Yamaguchi N., O’Brien S. J. & Macdonald D. W. 2011.
A suite of genetic markers useful in assessing wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) – domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) admixture. Journal of Heredity 102, 87-90.
- Weber D., Roth T. & Huwyler S. 2010.
Die aktuelle Verbreitung der Wildkatze (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) in der Schweiz Hintermann Weber.ch, pp. 25.
- Slotta-Bachmayr L. & Friembichler S. 2010.
Aktionsplan Schutz der Wildkatze in Österreich Wien, Austria: BMLFUW/ Abt, II/4, Stubenbastei 5, 1010 Wien, 54 pp.
- Jerosch S., Götz M., Klar N. & Roth M. 2010.
Characteristics of diurnal resting sites of the endangered European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris): Implications for its conservation. Journal for Nature Conservation 18(1), 45-54.
- Eichholzer A. 2010.
Testing the applicability of pictures taken by camera-traps for monitoring the European wildcat Felis silvestris silvestris in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland. University of Zürich, Switzerland. pp. 37.
- Eckert I., Suchentrunk F., Markov G. & Hartl G. B. 2010.
Genetic diversity and intergrity of German wildcat (Felis silvestris) populations as revealed by microsatellites, allozymes, and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mammalian Biology 75,160-74.
- Driscoll C. & Nowell K. 2010.
Felis silvestris. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
- Davis A. R. & Gray D. 2010.
The distribution of Scottish wildcats (Felis silvestris) in Scotland (2006-208). Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report, 52pp.
- Anile S., Bizzarri L. & Ragni B. 2010.
Estimation of European wildcat population size in Sicily (Italy) using camera trapping and capture-recapture analyses. Italian Journal of Zoology 77, 241-246.
More European Wildcat References provided by the IUCN Cat Specialist Group.
European Wildcat (Felis silvestris) Facts and Information
The following websites have well researched and authoritative information on Wildcats. Most group all three of the Wildcats together - African, Asiatic and European and the taxonomy may differ to that used here.
- European Wildcat - Detailed Information and Academic Reference List - IUCN Cat Specialist Group