Tiger (Panthera tigris)
Tiger (Panthera Tigris) by Bjørn Christian Tørrissen (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Wikimedia Commons

Panthera Lineage

1. Tiger (Panthera tigris)

2. Lion (Panthera leo)

3. Jaguar (Panthera onca)

4. Leopard (Panthera pardus)

5. Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia)

6. Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

7. Sunda Clouded Leopard (Neofelis diardi)

Classification

In scientific classification (taxonomy) the Tiger (Panthera tigris) belongs to the big cat genus Panthera within the subfamily Pantherinae of the Felidae cat family.

Kingdom: Animalia (animals)

 Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)

    Class: Mammalia (mammals)

      Order: Carnivora (carnivores)

      Suborder: Feliformia (cat-like)

Family: Felidae (cats)

Subfamily: Pantherinae (big cats)

Genus: Panthera (big cats)

Species: Panthera tigris (tiger)

  Subspecies:

P.t. tigris

P.t. sondaica

Note: The scientific name for the Tiger species, Panthera tigris, is also known as the binomial name, species name, latin name, biological name and zoological name. Some use the term 'botanical name' however that is only applicable to the plant kingdom (botany) and not the animal kingdom (zoology).

Tiger Sticker
Tiger
Lion Sticker
Lion
Jaguar Sticker
Jaguar
Leopard Sticker
Leopard

Classification Chart

This Tiger classification chart shows where the Tiger fits into the Felidae family and in particular the Panthera genus.

Tiger (Panthera tigris) Classification Chart
Click chart to download.
Permission to use for personal or educational use.
Credit: www.WildCatFamily.com.

Subspecies (Lower Classifications)

Six extant Tiger subspecies (or lower classifications) were described in the Red List assessment in 2014 and three subspecies have already gone extinct:

Critically Endangered (CR)

  • South China Tiger Panthera tigris amoyensis
  • Malayan Tiger Panthera tigris jacksoni
  • Sumatran Tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae

Endangered (EN)

  • Amur / Siberian Tiger Panthera tigris altaica
  • Indochinese Tiger Panthera tigris corbetti
  • Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris

Extinct (EX)

  • Bali Tiger Panthera tigris balica
  • Javan Tiger Panthera tigris sondaica
  • Caspian Tiger Panthera tigris virgata

However the last Felidae taxonomy revision in 2017 proposed only two subspecies of Tigers based on comprehensive genetic studies:

  1. Panthera tigris tigris - Mainland : larger size, paler coat with fewer stripes
  2. Panthera tigris sondaica - Sumatra : smaller size, darker coat with more stripes

*extant = still in existence

The 2022 assessment has discontinued the prior subspecies assessments and states that Tiger subspecies are still under review.

Taxonomy Papers since 2017

Liu, Yue-Chen, et al. "Genome-wide evolutionary analysis of natural history and adaptation in the world’s tigers." Current Biology 28.23 (2018): 3840-3849.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982218312144

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.019

  • Amur Tiger (P. t. altaica): Russian Far East and northeastern China
  • Northern Indochinese Tiger (P. t. corbetti): Indochina north of the Malayan Peninsula
  • Malayan Tiger (P. t. jacksoni): Peninsular Malaysia
  • Sumatran Tiger (P. t. sumatrae): Sumatra
  • Bengal Tiger (P. t. tigris): Indian sub-continent
  • South China Tiger (P. t. amoyensis): possibly extinct

Article about the paper: Genome-wide study confirms there are six tiger subspecies by Mongabay.com on 25 October 2018


Du, Hairong, et al. "New Evidence of Tiger Subspecies Differentiation and Environmental Adaptation: Comparison of the Whole Genomes of the Amur Tiger and the South China Tiger." Animals 12.14 (2022): 1817.

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/12/14/1817

https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141817

Tiger Subspecies Distribution Map 2017
Tiger subspecies map (2017) by AmazingSpaghetti [CC BY-SA 4.0] via Wikimedia Commons

Research

Here is a list of papers published on Tigers. Click on the title bar to view the abstract and the link to the article.

View more articles on Panthera tigris in the IUCN Cat Specialist Group database (scroll down once the library page is loaded to see the list).

Consider joining the Friends of the Cat Specialist Group to access the full articles and receive their journal Cat News covering the latest wild cat research.

Tiger (Panthera tigris) swimming

Bengal Tiger Ranthambhor National Park

Conservation

The global conservation status for Tigers is Endangered (EN) and populations continue to decline.

Tigers are the largest of all the wild cats, yet they are also the most endangered and some populations have already gone extinct. In spite of many conservation programs it is estimated the Tiger population has declined by over 95% in the past 100 years, primarily due to illicit poaching and habitat loss caused by ever increasing human populations.

The following global organizations are fighting to conserve our iconic Tigers:

Panthera.org - Tigers Forever

World Wildlife Fund WWF - Tigers TX2

Wildlife Conservation Society WCS Russia - Siberian Tiger

Wildlife Conservation Society WCS Russia - Amur Tiger

Please support these organizations with their important work if you can. No matter the size of your contribution, every bit helps!

Facts and Information

Besides being the largest of the big cats, Tigers have a unique coat pattern of only stripes. Other cats may have stripes on parts of their coats but their markings will also include spots, rosettes or blotches.

The following websites have well researched and authoritative information on Tigers:

Key Facts about Tigers

~ Largest wild cat species ~

~ Striped coat pattern ~

~ Highly endangered ~

Panthera Genus Big Cat Chart
Panthera Genus Chart by Wild Cat Family
Click chart to download.
Permission to use for personal or educational use.
Credit: www.WildCatFamily.com.